The National Statistical System in Cambodia is highly decentralised. The central institution in the National Statistical System is the NIS at Ministry of Planning. According to the Statistics Law, the NIS is the official national statistical institution of the Royal Government, with the responsibility for establishing, leading and coordinating an integrated national statistical system which covers all designated official statistics and statistical units within ministries and government institutions. In addition to the NIS, each ministry and other government institution have a statistics unit responsible for producing statistics. Various ministries and other institutions collect and produce statistics as part of their work. The system consists of NIS and 27 line ministries, government institutions and National Bank of Cambodia, all producers of designated official statistics. 

Statistics Law governs all matters relating to collection, processing, compilation, analysis, publication and dissemination of statistical data and pertains to the whole Kingdom of Cambodia. Under the Law there are two Sub Decrees that define the work for the National Statistical System, Sub Decree on Organization and Functioning of the National Statistical System and Sub Decree on Designated Official Statistics. 

According to the Sub Decree on the Organization and Functioning of the National Statistical System, the Statistics Advisory Council and the Statistics Coordination Committee were established in January 2007 to assist NIS in technical coordination of the official statistics.

The Sub Decree on Designated Official Statistics defines which surveys the statistical units shall be responsible for and what obligations the NIS and the statistical units have, e.g. that all data collection must be registered within the NIS and all information and statistical data produced must be submitted to NIS. An annual reporting for the National Statistical System is to be carried out by NIS to the Council of Ministers.  The first annual reporting was made for 2010 in August 2011.